6. RESEARCH

6.1 TRANSITION TO A WORLD AT WAR

6.2 GENERAL RESEARCH

6.3 AIR PROJECTS

6.4 NAVAL PROJECTS

6.5 MILITARY PROJECTS

6.5 ATOMIC PROJECTS

6.7 INTELLIGENCE PROJECTS

6.1 TRANSITION TO A WORLD AT WAR

6.11 RESEARCH PROJECTS: For Gathering Storm research projects that are research projects in A World at War:

A. Each Gathering Storm research result achieved becomes an A World at War research result.

B. As detailed below, Gathering Storm research short of a research result may have A World at War effects.

6.12 PRODUCTION PROJECTS: For Gathering Storm research projects that are A World at War production projects:

A. Each Gathering Storm research result achieved becomes an A World at War production result.

B. For each Gathering Storm level of research achieved short of a production result:

6.13 BASIC EUROPEAN RP ALLOTMENTS: Regardless of when war breaks out, A World at War rule 42.21 applies and the basic allotment of RPs for each European major power is:

A. GERMANY: 8.

B. ITALY: 2.

C. BRITAIN: 6.

D. FRANCE: 3.

E. RUSSIA: 6 (subject to the Russian cohesion level - 8.33).

6.14 ADDITIONAL RPs FROM BRP LEVELS: If war breaks out in a Winter Gathering Storm turn, so that A World at War beings with a YSS followed by a Spring turn, each major power also receives one RP for every 50 BRPs in its BRP total, in accordance with A World at War rule 41.21.

6.15 AMERICAN RPs:

A. WAR BEFORE 1940: If the first turn of A World at War is prior to Spring 1940, the U.S. receives no RPs until 1940, when it conducts its 1940 YSS calculations normally, in accordance with the A World at War rules. A 1939 American mobilization or USAT reaching 10 or more has no effect until the 1940 YSS.

B. WAR IN 1940: If the first turn of A World at War is in 1940, the American RPs from the 1940 YSS are added to the starting Western Allied A World at War total. 1940 American mobilizations and USAT increases are not considered when doing the American 1940 YSS calculations.

C. WAR IN 1941: If the first turn of A World at War is in 1941, the U.S. conducts its 1941 YSS calculations as well, and the American RPs from both the 1940 and 1941 YSS are added to the starting Western Allied A World at War total. 1941 American mobilizations and USAT increases are not considered when doing the American 1941 YSS calculations.

6.2 GENERAL RESEARCH:

6.21 WHEN GENERAL RESEARCH IS PERMITTED: How general research is first conducted depends on when war breaks out:

A. 1938 OR EARLIER: If the first turn of A World at War is in 1938 or earlier, general research is not permitted until 1939 (EXCEPTION: Atomic general research - 6.63B).

B. 1939: If the first turn of A World at War is in 1939, general research is permitted in 1939.

C. 1940: If the first turn of A World at War is in 1940, each alliance faction assigns RPs to general research in 1939 retroactively, as follows:

D. 1941: If the first turn of A World at War is in 1941, general research for 1939 is conducted as set out in 6.21C, then the procedure is repeated for 1940, with any modifiers from 1939 general research results being carried over into 1940.

6.22. ATOMIC RESEARCH: For each level of atomic research achieved in Gathering Storm, that alliance faction may apply a [+1] modifier to atomic general research:

A. The application of Gathering Storm atomic research modifiers is announced at the start of the research phase in which they are applied, before making the research die roll for atomic general research for that year.

B. A major power may apply all its Gathering Storm atomic research modifiers to a single atomic general research die roll, spread its Gathering Storm modifiers out so there is a [+1] modifier for each atomic general research die roll for as many years as it has Gathering Storm modifiers, or anything in between.

C. Each Gathering Storm atomic research modifier may only be used once.

D. If war breaks out in 1940 or later, Gathering Storm atomic research modifiers may be applied to 1939 and 1940 atomic general research die rolls (6.21C, D), subject to the restriction that the modifier applied may not exceed the level of Gathering Storm atomic research achieved up to that year.

6.23 SPY RINGS: Gathering Storm spy rings are eliminated when war breaks out, and have no effect on A World at War at war general research.

6.3 AIR PROJECTS:

6.31 JETS:

A. Regardless of when war breaks out, jet research in A World at War may begin in:

B. Three, nine and 15 steps of Gathering Storm jet research, as indicated by a «, generates a [+1] modifier on the first roll for jet research in A World at War.

C. In addition to generating a [+1] modifier when Germany first rolls for jet research in A World at War, 18 steps of Gathering Storm jet research generates one prototype jet factor in A World at War. This jet factor is added, unbuilt, to the German, British or Russian force pool in Spring 1942, counts against the overall jet force pool limits of the owning major power and has a range of two hexes in Europe and one hex in the Pacific.

6.32 AIR RANGE:

A. A Gathering Storm air range research result generates a [+5] modifier in A World at War when first rolling for air range research.

B. Intermediate Gathering Storm air range research results, indicated by a + number on the Gathering Storm research record sheet, generate a [+] modifier in A World at War when first rolling for air range research.

6.33 STRATEGIC BOMBERS: For Germany, Britain or Russia:

A. The first Gathering Storm strategic bomber research result generates a [+3] modifier in A World at War when first rolling for strategic bomber research.

B. A second Gathering Storm strategic bomber research result generates a [+6] modifier in A World at War when first rolling for strategic bomber research.

C. A third Gathering Storm strategic bomber research result generates an A World at War strategic bomber result and adds one strategic bomber to the German, British or Russian starting force pool as an allowable build. This has no effect on the owning major powers air force pool.

D. Intermediate or greater Gathering Storm strategic bomber research results, also indicated by a + number on the Gathering Storm research record sheet, generate a [+] modifier in A World at War when first rolling for strategic bomber research.

E. The production of strategic bomber units is not permitted in Gathering Storm; this occurs only as a result of a maximum (third) Gathering Storm strategic bomber research result or later during A World at War once a strategic bomber research result is achieved.

F. Italy and France may never produce strategic bombers.

6.34 AIR DEFENSE:

A. A Gathering Storm air defense research result generates a [+5] modifier in A World at War when first rolling for air defense research.

B. Intermediate Gathering Storm air defense research results, indicated by a + number on the Gathering Storm research record sheet, generate a [+] modifier in A World at War when first rolling for air defense research.

6.35 AIR TRANSPORTS:

A. A Gathering Storm air transport research result generates an air transport unit in A World at War.

B. Intermediate Gathering Storm air transport results, indicated by a circled number on the Gathering Storm research record sheet, generate one research point towards the production of an air transport unit, as set out in 6.12B above (k = one RP; m = two RPs).

C. The incorporation of air transport units into force pools and the production of additional air transport units in A World at War occur as follows:

6.4 NAVAL PROJECTS:

6.41 NAVAL AIR TRAINING:

A. A Gathering Storm naval air training research result generates a naval air training result in A World at War.

B. A second Gathering Storm naval air training research result generates a second naval air training result in A World at War.

C. Intermediate Gathering Storm naval air training research results, indicated by a circled number on the Gathering Storm research record sheet, generate one or two research points towards the next Axis (German or Italian results) or Western Allied (British results) naval air training production result in A World at War (j or m = one RP; k or n = two RPs).

D. The Axis modifiers are cumulative and may lead to an immediate Axis naval air training result in the first turn of A World at War for whichever Axis major power contributes the higher modifier (Axis choice if tied) without the need to assign an A World at War RP to the project; any modifiers beyond those needed for this result are ignored.

E. Britain starts Gathering Storm with one naval air training research result.

F. The Western Allies may not increase the American naval air training rate until the British naval air training rate is at least two.

6.42 BATTLESHIP DESIGN:

A. A Gathering Storm battleship design research result allows a major power to build four-factor battleships in A World at War.

B. A second Gathering Storm battleship design research result allows a major power to build any number of five-factor battleships in A World at War and:

C. Intermediate Gathering Storm battleship design research results, indicated by a circled number on the Gathering Storm research record sheet, have the following effects:

D. German and Italian Gathering Storm battleship design research results are not combined.

E. British and French Gathering Storm battleship design research results are not combined.

F. The U.S. is considered to have two battleship design results when A World at War starts.

6.43 ASW RESEARCH:

A. A Gathering Storm ASW research result generates a [+3] modifier in A World at War when first rolling for ASW research.

B. Intermediate or greater Gathering Storm ASW research results, also indicated by a + number on the Gathering Storm research record sheet, generate a [+] modifier in A World at War when first rolling for ASW research.

6.44 TORPEDOES:

A. A Gathering Storm torpedo research result generates a [+3] modifier in A World at War when first rolling for torpedo research.

B. Intermediate or greater Gathering Storm torpedo research results, also indicated by a + number on the Gathering Storm research record sheet, generate a [+] modifier in A World at War when first rolling for torpedo research.

6.45 ADVANCED SUBMARINES:

A. Regardless of when war breaks out, German advanced submarine research in A World at War may begin in:

B. Three, nine and 15 steps of Gathering Storm advanced submarine research, as indicated by a «, generates a [+1] modifier when Germany first rolls for advanced submarine research in A World at War.

C. In addition to generating a [+1] modifier when Germany first rolls for advanced submarine research in A World at War, 18 steps of Gathering Storm advanced submarine research generates one unbuilt prototype advanced submarine factor in A World at War. This advanced submarine factor is added, unbuilt, to the German force pool in Spring 1942, counts against the overall German advanced submarine force pool limit and operates in the same manner as other German advanced submarine factors.

6.46 HARBOR ATTACKS:

A. Three steps of Gathering Storm harbor attack research, as indicated by a «, generate a 6 (one target) A World at War harbor attack result.

B. A Gathering Storm harbor attack research result generates a 7 (two target) A World at War harbor attack result.

C. Harbor attack results generated in Gathering Storm must be carried out by the major power that conducted the Gathering Storm research before any harbor attacks researched by that alliance faction in A World at War are made.

6.47 LIGHT SHIPS:

A. Each Gathering Storm light ship research result adds a cruiser (CA2) and two destroyers (DD2) to the German or Italian navy (Axis result) or the British or French navy (Allied result). These additional light ships begin built at the start of A World at War.

B. Three steps of Gathering Storm light ship research, as indicated by a «, add a cruiser (CA2), but no destroyers.

C. Nine steps of Gathering Storm light ship research, as indicated by a «, add a cruiser (CA2), but no destroyers, in addition to the CA2 and DD2 added from the first light ship research result.

6.48 SUBMARINES:

A. Without any Gathering Storm submarine research, Germany, Italy and Britain each start A World at War with one unbuilt submarine factor.

B. For each of Germany, Italy and Britain:

6.49 ASW AND TRANSPORT PRODUCTION:

A. Without any Gathering Storm ASW production research, the Western Allies start A World at War with one unbuilt Western Allied ASW factor. If the Allies conducted ASW production research in Gathering Storm:

B. Without any Gathering Storm transport research, the Western Allies start A World at War with 34 built transports and 5 unbuilt transports (39 transports in total). If the Allies conducted transport research in Gathering Storm:

6.5 MILITARY PROJECTS:

6.51 ARMOR:

A. Gathering Storm armor research results have no counterpart in A World at War.

B. Gathering Storm armor research results affect the strength of each major powers A World at War armor units as set out in rule 4 (force levels). With respect to 5-6 armor units, which may only be created in A World at War:

Once Russia achieves a second armor research result (12 steps), either in Gathering Storm or in A World at War (4.72D), A World at War rule 42.333G is in effect and Russia may mobilize or produce 4-5 and 5-6 armor units. Until then, Russia must continue armor research, using one A World at War military RP each year for each missing level or portion thereof of Gathering Storm armor research, until it has made up the deficit. (4.72B).

6.52 ROCKETS:

A. Regardless of when war breaks out, rocket research in A World at War may begin in:

B. Three, nine and 15 steps of Gathering Storm rocket research, as indicated by a «, generates a [+1] modifier on the first roll for rocket research in A World at War.

C. In addition to generating a [+1] modifier when Germany first rolls for rocket research in A World at War, 18 steps of Gathering Storm rocket research generates one rocket base in A World at War. This rocket base may be placed on the mapboard in Spring 1942 and counts against the overall rocket base force pool limit for the owning major power.

D. If Russia achieves a Gathering Storm rocket research result (six steps, three levels), each additional level of Russian Gathering Storm rocket research generates one research point towards the production of shock armies in A World at War (eight steps: one research point; ten steps; two research points; and so on), in addition to the normal effects of Gathering Storm rocket research.

6.53 SPECIALIZED UNITS:

A. Each Gathering Storm specialized unit research result generates a specialized unit in A World at War for Germany, Italy, Britain or Russia, as the case may be, up to a maximum of three specialized units for the Axis and Britain, and two airborne units for Russia.

B. Three, nine and 15 steps of Gathering Storm specialized unit research, as indicated by a «, generate one research point towards the next specialized unit result.

C. In addition to the above:

6.54 FORTIFICATIONS:

A. WEST WALL:

B. MAGINOT LINE:

C. WEST WALL AND MAGINOT LINE COUNTERS: West Wall and Maginot Line counters are provided to indicate the status of the West Wall and Maginot Line hexes.

6.55 ECONOMIC PREPARATION:

A. CONSTRUCTION LIMIT EFFECTS: For each level of economic preparation research achieved by Germany, Britain and Russia in Gathering Storm up to a second economic preparation result, the German, British or Russian construction limit in A World at War is increased by one, from a starting level of -3 BRPs per turn, up to a maximum increase of +3, starting in the first turn of war:

 

Construction Limit Effects - 6.55

Economic preparation

0

1

2

3

4

5

6+

Construction limit effect

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

Economic preparation is the number of levels of Gathering Storm economic preparation research achieved.

Construction limit effect is the corresponding decrease or increase to the major powers construction limit in A World at War.

 

B. PRODUCTION EFFECTS: In addition to the construction limit effects of a second Gathering Storm economic preparation research result:

C. PRODUCTION RESULTS:

Ernest Lawrence, Arthur Compton, Vannevar Bush, and James Conant discuss uranium research, Berkeley, March 29, 1940.

6.6 ATOMIC PROJECTS:

6.61 RADAR:

A. A Gathering Storm radar research result generates a [+5] modifier in A World at War when first rolling for radar research.

B. Intermediate Gathering Storm radar research results, indicated by a + number on the Gathering Storm research record sheet, generate a [+] modifier in A World at War when first rolling for radar research.

6.62 ATOMIC RESEARCH: Gathering Storm atomic research generates [+] modifiers in A World at War when rolling for atomic general research, as described in 6.22.

6.63 TIMING OF ATOMIC RESEARCH IN A WORLD AT WAR:

A. A WORLD AT WAR RESTRICTIONS NORMALLY APPLY: Subject to 6.63B, research points may not be assigned to atomic projects until the following times, regardless of when war breaks out in Europe:

B. ATOM SPLIT IN GATHERING STORM: Atomic general research is permitted in the first year of war if general random event 72 or 144 occurs in Gathering Storm. This exception applies even if war breaks out prior to 1939, so the first A World at War turn occurs in 1938 or earlier. The restrictions on other atomic research set out in 6.63 apply regardless of when atomic general research begins.

6.7 INTELLIGENCE PROJECTS:

6.71 COUNTER-INTELLIGENCE:

A. Three steps of Gathering Storm counter-intelligence research (indicated by a «) allows counter-intelligence research in A World at War, with a 6+ required for a result:

Results:

1-2 No effect.

3 [+1]

4 [+2]

5 [+3]

6+ Eliminate one enemy spy ring or negate one Russian, German or British covert operation attempt. Counter-intelligence capabilities may not be accumulated.

B. Six steps of Gathering Storm counter-intelligence research (the first Gathering Storm counter-intelligence research result) reduces the level required for an A World at War counter-intelligence research result to 5+.

C. Nine steps of Gathering Storm counter-intelligence research (indicated by a «) reduces the level required for an A World at War counter-intelligence research result to 4+.

D. Twelve steps of Gathering Storm counter-intelligence research (the second Gathering Storm counter-intelligence research result) reduces the level required for an A World at War counter-intelligence research result to 3+.

E. Unused counter-intelligence results are eliminated when war breaks out.

6.72 COVERT OPERATIONS:

A. Three steps of Gathering Storm covert operations research (indicated by a «) allow covert operations research in A World at War, with a 6+ required for a result:

Results:

1-2 No effect.

3 [+1]

4 [+2]

5 [+3]

6+ Generates a +1 (Axis) or -1 (Western Allies, Russia) modifier to one diplomatic die roll or European tension level. Covert operation capabilities may not be accumulated.

B. Six steps of Gathering Storm covert operations research (the first Gathering Storm covert operations research result) reduce the level required for an A World at War covert operations research result to 5+.

C. Nine steps of Gathering Storm covert operations research (indicated by a «) reduce the level required for an A World at War covert operations research result to 4+.

D. Twelve steps of Gathering Storm covert operations research (the second Gathering Storm covert operations research result) reduce the level required for an A World at War covert operations research result to 3+.

E. Unused covert operations results are eliminated when war breaks out.

6.73 ESPIONAGE:

A. Three steps of Gathering Storm espionage research (indicated by a «) allow espionage research in A World at War, with a 6+ required for a result.

B. Six steps of Gathering Storm espionage research (the first Gathering Storm espionage research result) allow A World at War spy rings to modify diplomatic die rolls and general research normally.

C. Nine steps of Gathering Storm espionage research (indicated by a «) give the owning alliance faction a +1 modifier for its first air, naval, military or intelligence general research roll in A World at War. Atomic general research may not be selected for this modifier. The general research category is decided upon and announced at the end of Gathering Storm.

D. . Twelve steps of Gathering Storm espionage research (the second Gathering Storm espionage research result) give the owning alliance faction a +1 modifier for any one air, naval, military or intelligence project in A World at War, in addition to the +1 modifier for air, naval, military or intelligence general research associated with nine steps of Gathering Storm espionage research. General research and atomic projects may not be selected for this one-time modifier. The decision to apply the modifier is made after the research roll is made and the unmodified result known to the rolling player.

E. Spy rings placed in Gathering Storm are eliminated when war breaks out.

6.74 CODEBREAKING:

A. When A World at War begins, the Axis and Western Allies each start with six blank Ultra cards and two Ultra codebreaking cards. The first Gathering Storm codebreaking research result replaces a blank Ultra codebreaking card; the second Gathering Storm codebreaking research result adds a ninth Ultra codebreaking card.

C. Intermediate Gathering Storm codebreaking research results, indicated by a j or k number on the Gathering Storm research record sheet, generate one research point towards a codebreaking production result, as set out in 6.13B above (two steps = one RP; four steps = two RPs).

6.75 OCCUPATION POLICIES:

A. Each Gathering Storm occupation policies research result generates an occupation policies research result in A World at War, permitting the construction of Vlasov units starting in the first turn of war between Germany and Russia in accordance with A World at War rule 44.32.

B. An intermediate Gathering Storm occupation policies research result, indicated by a circled number on the Gathering Storm research record sheet, generates one or two research points towards the next German occupation policies result (j or m = one RP; k or n = two RPs).

6.76 MOSLEM UNREST:

A. Each Gathering Storm Moslem unrest research result generates a Moslem unrest research result in A World at War, permitting the construction of a Moslem partisan in the first turn of war between Germany or Italy and Britain, in accordance with A World at War rule 44.35.

B. Three and nine steps of Gathering Storm Moslem unrest research, as indicated by a «, generate one research point towards the next Axis Moslem unrest result.

6.77 ANGLO-FRENCH COOPERATION:

6.771 INITIAL APPLICATION OF RESTRICTIONS: The Anglo-French cooperation restrictions set out in A World at War rule 53.2, as modified below, apply at the start of every A World at War game, regardless of the number of Gathering Storm Anglo-French cooperation research results.

6.772 RESTRICTIONS TEMPORARY: Subject to A World at War Anglo-French cooperation research results, the Anglo-French cooperation restrictions are lifted at the start of the Allied player turn following the earliest applicable triggering event:

A. Four, three or two turns, depending on the number of Gathering Storm Anglo-French cooperation research results (6.773) following any one of:

B. The Spring turn following the first full year of war (Spring 1937 if war breaks out in 1935; Spring 1938 if war breaks out in 1936; and so on).

C. The turn after France surrenders.

6.773 EFFECT OF GATHERING STORM RESEARCH: Gathering Storm Anglo-French cooperation research results have the following effects on the delay in lifting the Anglo-French cooperation restrictions (6.772A):

A. NO RESULTS: If the Allies have no Gathering Storm Anglo-French cooperation research results:

B. ONE RESULT: If the Allies have one Gathering Storm Anglo-French cooperation research result, indicated by a j on the Gathering Storm research record sheet:

C. TWO OR MORE RESULTS: If the Allies have two or more Gathering Storm Anglo-French cooperation research results, indicated by a k,+1, +2 or +3 on the Gathering Storm research record sheet:

D. NO EFFECT ON 6.772B AND C: Gathering Storm Anglo-French cooperation research results have no effect on the operation of the 6.772B and C triggering events. The Anglo-French cooperation restrictions are always lifted if the situations described in described in 6.772B and C arise.

6.78 SUBVERSION:

A. Each unused Gathering Storm Russian subversion research result, indicated by a +1 number on the Gathering Storm research record sheet, generates a [+] modifier in A World at War when first rolling for Russian subversion.