25. CIVIL WARS
25.2 PRE-CIVIL WAR DIPLOMACY
25.3 OUTBREAK OF CIVIL WAR
25.4 GOVERNING FACTIONS
25.5 FIGHTING A CIVIL WAR
25.6 ENDING A CIVIL WAR
25.7 EFFECTS OF A CIVIL WAR
25.8 POST-CIVIL WAR DIPLOMACY
25.11 Historically the Spanish civil war lasted from 1936 to 1939, with Franco’s right wing forces, supported by Germany and Italy, eventually defeating the leftist government supported mainly by Russia. In Gathering Storm, civil wars may break out not only in Spain, but also in Greece and Yugoslavia (historically their civil wars occurred during or after World War II, with a second Yugoslavian civil war occurring decades later).
25.2 PRE-CIVIL WAR DIPLOMACY:
25.21 BEFORE A CIVIL WAR: Prior to the outbreak of a civil war, diplomatic activity (placing diplomatic counters, covert operations) is permitted in Greece, Spain and Yugoslavia, and diplomacy is resolved in the same manner as for other minor countries.
25.22 DURING A CIVIL WAR: During a civil war, only the major powers that support two contending factions may conduct diplomatic activity in the minor country in which the civil war is being fought. Diplomacy is resolved as set out in 25.53.
25.23 AFTER A CIVIL WAR: After a civil war, diplomatic activity is not permitted in the minor country in which the civil war occurred (25.8).
25.3 OUTBREAK OF CIVIL WAR:
25.31 FIVE RANDOM EVENTS REQUIRED: When five random events have occurred in Greece, Spain or Yugoslavia, a civil war breaks out in that country. These random events are indicated by placing numbered civil war counters on the mapboard.
A. PUBLIC DIPLOMATIC RANDOM EVENTS: If the fifth triggering event is a public diplomatic event, the civil war breaks out at the start of the turn and the EAI is adjusted prior to the economic phase (25.33). The effect of the public diplomatic event is determined during the ensuing diplomatic phase (24.81).
B. SECRET DIPLOMATIC RANDOM EVENTS: If the fifth triggering event is a secret diplomatic event, the civil war breaks out at the end of the diplomatic phase in which the event is revealed and the EAI is adjusted prior to the crisis phase (23.21E).
C. SURPLUS TRIGGERING EVENTS: If more secret diplomatic random events occur in a diplomatic phase than are needed to trigger the outbreak of a civil war, the civil war still breaks out at the end of the diplomatic phase, but the surplus random events do not bring the civil war closer to ending (25.61A).
25.32 INITIAL LEVELS: At the start of the game, the indicated number of random events are deemed to have already occurred:
A. SPAIN: One tile is drawn at random and that many random events are deemed to have occurred in Spain.
B. GREECE: None.
C. YUGOSLAVIA: None.
Spain will have one, two or three random events towards a civil war when the game starts. This may also be determined by a die roll, although there are no dice in Gathering Storm.
25.33 EUROPEAN AGGRESSION INDEX: The EAI increases by +1 if one or more civil wars are being fought (maximum +1) (23.21E).
25.4 GOVERNING FACTIONS:
25.41 GOVERNING AND REBELLING FACTIONS: In each civil war there is one governing and one rebelling faction, each supported by one of the three alliances in the game. The faction in bold is the governing faction and the second faction is the rebelling faction.
A. GREECE: Metaxas regime (Axis) vs. Communists (Russia) or Liberals (Allies).
B. SPAIN: Republicans (Russia) vs. Nationalists (Axis).
C. YUGOSLAVIA: Serbian Royalists (Allies) vs. Croatian separatists (Axis).
D. GOVERNMENT ADVANTAGE: The governing faction (25.4) receives a +1 modifier in all civil war diplomacy.
25.42 GREECE: If a civil war breaks out in Greece, either Russia or the Allies (but not both) may support the rebels in any given turn.
A. The decision as to whether Russia or the Allies supports the rebels is made on a turn-by-turn basis, during the diplomatic phase, after the first round of Axis diplomatic counter placement.
B. If Russia is unable to allocate the mandatory diplomatic counter to Greece because of purge effects, the Allies must support the Greek rebels.
25.5 FIGHTING A CIVIL WAR:
25.51 DIPLOMACY PERMITTED ONLY IN SUPPORT OF CON-TENDING FACTIONS: Only the major powers that support two contending factions (the “contending alliances”) may conduct diplomatic activity in the minor country in which the civil war is being fought, regardless of the initial diplomatic situation when the civil war breaks out:
A. GREECE: Axis and Russia or the Allies.
B. SPAIN: Russia and the Axis.
C. YUGOSLAVIA: Allies and the Axis.
25.52 DIPLOMATIC RULES APPLY: The military and diplomatic aid provided by contending alliances in aid of their civil war factions are represented as follows:
A. DIPLOMATIC COUNTERS: Each contending alliance must place a diplomatic counter with a value of at least one in the civil war country in the normal manner, if not prohibited from doing so (24.56D, 24.61A, random events where a dispute between two minor countries precludes placement of a diplomatic counter in a minor country engaged in a civil war). If more than one civil war is being fought, a contending alliance may also use diplomatic counters with a value of zero to support their civil war factions.
The placement of a diplomatic counter in a civil war country does not count against the limit on diplomatic counter placement.
Greece and Spain are eligible targets for a Russian diplomatic counter if civil wars have broken out in them, provided Russian purge effects don’t prevent Russian diplomacy.
If Russian purge effects prevent Russian diplomacy, Russia must use any additional civil war diplomatic counter (24.53A) it has to meet this requirement.
B. MILITARY COUNTERS: Major powers may intervene in a civil war by placing one military counter each turn in support of their contending faction, subject to the following:
A major power may use a military counter to intervene in a civil war without regard to the normal support, balance of power and Russian garrison requirements for using military counters, subject to the following restriction:
Italy may not use a military counter to intervene in a civil war if it is engaged in conquering a minor country.
Russia may not use a military counter to intervene in a civil war if it is subject to a Military or Great Purge.
No major power may use more than one military counter to intervene in a civil war each turn, even if more than one civil war is being fought.
Military counters used in civil wars may not be used elsewhere during that turn.
Using a military counter to intervene in a civil war requires the use of a one strength activity counter, with a cost of one tile point.
Civil war intervention with a military counter generates an RP, regardless of the effect of the intervention, provided an eligible target research project is available (15.22D).
C. OTHER FACTORS: Covert operations, diplomatic spy rings, Russian subversion and random events may also affect the resolution of civil war diplomacy.
D. GOVERNMENT ADVANTAGE: The governing faction (25.4) receives a +1 modifier in all civil war diplomacy.
25.53 RESOLVING CIVIL WAR DIPLOMACY:
A. Each contending alliance totals the value of its diplomatic effort in the civil war country for that turn. This is referred to as the “intervention level” for that turn.
B. One numbered civil war counter is then drawn from the pool of civil war counters, to determine the “intervention threshold” for that turn. The intervention threshold is increased by the value of any random events for the civil war country played by the non-participating alliance (for example, Allied random events in Spain make it more difficult for either the Axis or Russia to achieve a diplomatic result):
If the two contending factions have the same intervention level, there is no effect.
If one contending faction’s intervention level exceeds that of the other contending faction by an amount less than the intervention threshold, that faction achieves a diplomatic advantage (25.54).
If one contending faction’s intervention level exceeds that of the other contending faction by an amount equal to or greater than the intervention threshold, it achieves a diplomatic result (25.55).
25.54 EFFECTS OF A DIPLOMATIC ADVANTAGE: If one faction achieves a diplomatic advantage:
A. ADDITIONAL DIPLOMATIC COUNTER: The major power that contributed the most to the intervention level (Germany and France in the event of equal Axis or Allied contribution) may place an additional diplomatic counter in the following turn (24.53).
B. FLAGS: No flag is placed or removed in the civil war country.
C. CIVIL WAR COUNTER REMAINS IN PLAY: The civil war counter drawn to determine the intervention threshold for that turn remains in play and may be redrawn in a subsequent turn.
25.55 EFFECTS OF A DIPLOMATIC RESULT: If one faction achieves a diplomatic result:
A. ADDITIONAL DIPLOMATIC COUNTER: An additional diplomatic counter may be placed in the next turn, in the same manner as for a diplomatic advantage (24.54).
B. FLAGS: A flag is placed or removed, as the case may be, as for all diplomatic results.
C. CIVIL WAR COUNTER REMOVED: The civil war counter drawn for that turn is removed from play.
25.6 ENDING A CIVIL WAR:
25.61 Civil wars may end in one of three ways:
A. ALL FIVE CIVIL WAR COUNTERS ARE REMOVED: When all five numbered civil war counters are removed from play, the civil war ends at the end of the diplomatic phase in which the last civil war counter is removed from play. Civil war counters are removed in two ways:
Diplomatic results: When a diplomatic result is achieved in the minor country, whether a flag is placed or removed, the civil war counter that was drawn to determine the intervention threshold for that turn is removed from play. (25.55C).
Random events: When a random event occurs in the minor country in any turn after the outbreak of civil war, one civil war counter is removed from play. This is done after the player achieving a diplomatic result removes a counter. The civil war counter that is removed is selected randomly.
B. AXIS AGGRESSION: Italy attacks Greece or Yugoslavia while a civil war is being fought. The civil war then ends at the end of the crisis phase in which the Italian aggression occurs.
C. OUTBREAK OF WAR: General war breaks out and Gathering Storm ends. This has no effect on Gathering Storm or the conversion of Gathering Storm to A World at War, and is only relevant once the game is continued into A World at War.
25.7 EFFECTS OF A CIVIL WAR:
25.71 +1 DIPLOMATIC MODIFIER FOR WINNER: If a contending faction has flags in a civil war country when its civil war ends, it forms the new government of the civil war country. A +1 modifier applies to offset any future adverse random events in the civil war country (25.81). If there are no flags in a civil war country when its civil war ends, no modifier applies to future random events in that minor country.
25.72 ADDITIONAL DIPLOMATIC COUNTER: If a contending faction has flags in a civil war country when its civil war ends, the victorious alliance may place an additional diplomatic counter in the next turn, in the same manner as for a diplomatic advantage (25.54).
A. AXIS VICTORY: If the Axis win the Yugoslavian civil war, or if the Yugoslavian civil war ends in a draw, with neither side having any flags in Yugoslavia:
Croatia is established as an Italian puppet state:
Any Axis flags in Yugoslavia at the end of the civil war are placed in Croatia.
Pro-Axis Yugoslavian random events drawn after the end of the Yugoslavian civil war are applied to Croatia.
The remainder of Yugoslavia is reconstituted as Serbia:
Pro-Allied Yugoslavian random events drawn after the end of the Yugoslavian civil war are applied to Serbia.
Pro-Russian Yugoslavian random events drawn after the end of the Yugoslavian civil war are applied to Croatia if the Nazi-Soviet Pact is not in effect; and are applied to Serbia if the Nazi-Soviet Pact is in effect.
No military or diplomatic counters may be placed in Serbia or Croatia for the remainder of the game.
B. ALLIED VICTORY: If the Allies win the Yugoslavian civil war, Yugoslavia remains a single country.
25.8 POST-CIVIL WAR DIPLOMACY:
25.81 Once a civil war has ended, diplomatic counters, spy rings, covert operations and subversion are prohibited in the minor country and new spy rings may not be placed in it. Diplomatic random events drawn after the end of a civil war may still alter the diplomatic alignment for a minor country which has had a civil war.
25.82 A second civil war may not occur in a minor country.