24. DIPLOMACY

24.1      OVERVIEW

24.2      DIPLOMATIC TARGETS

24.3      ANTI-COMINTERN COUNTER

24.4      MILITARY COUNTERS

24.5      DIPLOMATIC COUNTERS

24.6      RUSSIAN DIPLOMACY

24.7      MAJOR POWER RELATIONS

24.8      RESOLVING DIPLOMACY

24.9      SPECIAL SITUATIONS

24.1  OVERVIEW:

24.11  During the diplomatic phase, diplomatic results may be triggered in eligible minor countries and Russia (“diplomatic targets”) by one or more of the following:

A. MILITARY COUNTERS: The placement of military counters in a minor country.

B. ANTI-COMINTERN COUNTER: The placement of the anti-Comintern counter (24.3).

C. DIPLOMATIC COUNTER PLACEMENT: The placement of activity counters (“diplomatic counters”) in a minor country.

D. RANDOM EVENTS: Diplomatic random events. Diplomatic general random events favor the Axis (brown), Western Allies (blue) or Russia (red).

24.12  MILITARY COUNTERS:

A. Germany, France and Russia may place military counters in specified adjacent minor countries, depending on their support levels and the status of the balance of power (Germany and France) or the Russian garrison (Russia). Major powers may also use military counters to intervene in civil wars (24.4).

B. Each major power may place only one military counter in each eligible target.

C. The number of military counters placed in non-civil war adjacent minor countries may not exceed the placing major power’s support level or their balance of power (Germany and France) or Russian garrison (Russia) advantage.

24.13  DIPLOMATIC COUNTERS:  Each turn, during each diplomatic phase, each major power may place activity counters (“diplomatic counters”) in two or more different minor countries. One of these diplomatic counters may be a 0 counter (24.56G).

24.14  ADDITIONAL DIPLOMATIC COUNTERS:  Major powers may place additional diplomatic counters after certain triggering events (24.53).

24.15  The effectiveness of military counters, diplomatic counters and diplomatic random events depends on the value of the counters and random events and the relationship between the various major powers, which determines how diplomatic forces interact.

24.16  Diplomatic results may be obtained without the placement of a military or diplomatic counter if random events favor one side or the other.

24.17  No die rolls are made to resolve diplomacy.

24.18  Diplomatic success results in a shift in the alignment of the diplomatic target. Diplomatic results are recorded by placing a flag in the target or removing a flag belonging to an opposing major power.

24.2  DIPLOMATIC TARGETS:

24.21  The following minor countries may be selected as diplomatic targets, subject to the restrictions set out in 24.56. For convenience, the initial alignment of each diplomatic target is given in parentheses (at the start of the game, flags of the indicated major power are placed on the mapboard in each country):

A. Albania (+1) [Italy]

B. Austria (+1) [Germany]

C. Belgium/Luxembourg (-3) [France]

D. Bulgaria (0)

E. Czechoslovakia (-3) [France]

F. Finland (+1) [Germany]

G. Greece (0)

H. Hungary (+1) [Italy]

I. Ireland (0)

J. Norway (0)

K. Poland (-1) [France]

L. Rhineland (+2) [Germany]

M. Rumania (+1) [Germany]

N. Spain (0)

O. Sweden (0)

P. Turkey (0)

Q. Yugoslavia (0)

24.3  ANTI-COMINTERN COUNTER:

24.31  TIMING:  At the start of the diplomatic phase, Germany may place one anti-Comintern counter as set out below.

24.32  STRENGTH:  The availability and strength of the anti-Comintern counter is determined by the Russian cohesion level at the start of the diplomatic phase:

A. If the Russian cohesion level is low (fewer than 10 purge events), the anti-Comintern counter has a strength of one.

B. If the Russian cohesion level is medium (10-19 purge events), the anti-Comintern counter has a strength of two.

C. If the Russian cohesion level is high or full (20 or more purge events), the anti-Comintern counter has a strength of three.

24.33  COST:  There is no cost to place the anti-Comintern counter.

24.34  RESTRICTIONS:  Placement of the anti-Comintern counter is subject to the following restrictions:

A. The anti-Comintern counter may only be placed in a minor country bordering Russia (Finland, Poland, Rumania or Turkey).

B. The anti-Comintern counter may not be placed in a bordering minor country that contains one or more Allied flags or to which a pro-Allied public diplomatic random event applies.

C. Subject to 24.35, the anti-Comintern counter must be placed in the eligible bordering minor country that is the least anti-Communist:

D. In the event of a tie in one of the above categories, the Axis player chooses where to place the anti-Comintern counter.

24.35  GERMAN MILITARY AND DIPLOMATIC COUNTERS:

A. In its initial diplomatic placement, Germany may place a diplomatic counter and (Poland only) a military counter in the bordering minor country in which the anti-Comintern counter would otherwise be placed, provided the strength of the German diplomatic effort exceeds the strength of the anti-Comintern counter.

B. The anti-Comintern counter is then relocated to the next eligible location, with the process being repeated as often as required.

C. Italian diplomatic counters may not be used in this fashion.

Since the placement of the anti-Comintern counter and the initial German diplomatic counter(s) are, practically speaking, simultaneous, 24.35 simply allows Germany to make a diplomatic effort in a bordering minor country greater than allowed by the anti-Comintern counter itself.

24.36  ALLIED AND RUSSIAN MILITARY AND DIPLOMATIC COUNTERS:  Once the initial Axis diplomatic placements are made:

A. The Allies may not place a diplomatic counter in the minor country in which the anti-Comintern counter was placed; Russia may.

B. Both the Axis and Russia may support or oppose the anti-Comintern counter with covert operations or subversion (Russia only).

24.37  EFFECTS:  The anti-Comintern counter acts like a pro-German diplomatic random event, modifying the diplomacy for the minor country in which it is placed by its strength.

Nazi-Soviet Pact

24.38  NAZI-SOVIET PACT: If the Nazi-Soviet Pact has been signed, Germany may no longer place the anti-Comintern counter.

24.4  MILITARY COUNTERS:

24.41  OVERVIEW:  Military counters reflect the diplomatic effect of a major power’s armed forces. Military counters are placed at the same time as diplomatic counters. Military counters may be used diplomatically in neighboring minor countries and to intervene in civil wars.

24.42  MECHANICS:

A. TIMING: Axis military counters are placed at the same time as the initial placement of Axis diplomatic counters, after the anti-Comintern counter has been placed. Allied and Russian military counters are placed at the same time as Allied and Russian diplomatic counters.

B. PLACEMENT OPEN: Military counters are placed openly, so all players know which minor countries are affected.

C. OVERALL LIMITS: The number of military counters each major power may place each turn is limited by the number of military counters provided with the game:

D. LIMIT PER TARGET: A major power may place no more than one military counter in each neighboring minor country. Both Germany and Italy may place a military counter in a civil war country.

E. COST: Military counter placement has the following costs:

F. EFFECT: Each military counter gives the placing major power a +1 diplomatic modifier, in the same manner as a diplomatic random event.

24.43  GERMAN MILITARY COUNTERS:  Germany may place military counters if the Axis have a balance of power advantage and Germany has a positive support level (EXCEPTION: These requirements do not apply to the use of a military counter to intervene in a civil war).

A. ONE MILITARY COUNTER: If the Axis have a balance of power advantage of at least one and Germany has a support level of at least one, Germany may place one military counter.

B. TWO MILITARY COUNTERS: If the Axis have a balance of power advantage of at least two and Germany has a support level of at least two, Germany may place two military counters.

C. THREE MILITARY COUNTERS: If the Axis have a balance of power advantage of three or more and Germany has a support level of three or more, Germany may place three military counters.

D. RESTRICTIONS:

E. POLAND: Germany may not place both a military counter and the anti-Comintern counter in Poland. If the anti-Comintern counter was initially placed in Poland, Germany may only place a military counter in Poland by placing a diplomatic counter in Poland that results in the relocation of the anti-Comintern counter (24.35).

24.44 ITALIAN MILITARY COUNTER: Italy may use its military counter only to intervene in a civil war and therefore may place its military counter whether or not the Axis have a balance of power advantage or Italy has a positive support level.

A. RESTRICTIONS:

24.45 FRENCH MILITARY COUNTER: France may place a military counter if the Allies have a balance of power advantage and France has a positive support level (EXCEPTION: These requirements do not apply to the use of the French military counter to intervene in a civil war).

A. RESTRICTIONS: France may place its military counter in Belgium/Luxembourg, the Rhineland, prior to it being remilitarized by Germany; or use it to intervene in either a Yugoslavian civil war or in a Greek civil war in a turn in which the Allies are supporting the rebels, subject to its overall limit of placing one military counter each turn (24.42C).

24.46 BRITISH MILITARY COUNTER: Britain may use its military counter only to intervene in either a Yugoslavian civil war or in a Greek civil war in a turn in which the Allies are supporting the rebels, whether or not the Allies have a balance of power advantage or Britain has a positive support level.

24.47 RUSSIAN MILITARY COUNTERS: Russia may place military counters if Russia’s garrison is greater than required (21.41B) and Russia has a positive support level (EXCEPTION: These requirements do not apply to the use of a military counter to intervene in a civil war).

A. ONE MILITARY COUNTER: If Russia has one or two surplus units in the Russian garrison and has a support level of at least one, it may place one military counter.

B. TWO MILITARY COUNTERS: If Russia has three, four or five surplus units in the Russian garrison and has a support level of at least two, it may place two military counters.

C. THREE MILITARY COUNTERS: If Russia has six or more surplus units in the Russian garrison and has a support level of at least three, it may place three military counters.

D. RESTRICTIONS:

24.5  DIPLOMATIC COUNTERS:

24.51  DIPLOMATIC COUNTERS:  The pool of diplomatic counters is limited by the activity counters available for diplomatic use for each major power.

The activity counters available for diplomacy will be the activity counters not used in the economic phase of the current turn, and will never include the activity counters that may only be used for research and shipbuilding.

24.52  PURCHASING DIPLOMATIC COUNTERS:

A. Diplomatic counters are purchased during the diplomatic phase, immediately before they are placed, at the equivalent cost in tile points.

B. A major power may not incur a deficit to purchase diplomatic counters (6.12), although a major power may reveal a secret support random event in order to augment its income to purchase diplomatic counters (9.41E).

C. Actual payment for diplomatic counters is made at the end of the diplomatic phase, to conceal the strength of the diplomatic counters purchased until they have been used.

24.53  ADDITIONAL DIPLOMATIC COUNTERS:  An additional diplomatic counter may be placed by a major power that achieves a diplomatic advantage or result in a civil war country, or which wins a civil war (25.54A, 25.55A, 25.72).

A. GENERAL RULES: The following general rules apply to additional civil war diplomatic counters:

B. RESTRICTIONS: The placement of additional diplomatic counters is subject to the following restrictions:

24.54  DIPLOMATIC COUNTER PLACEMENT:

A. USE OF DIPLOMATIC COUNTERS: Each major power is restricted in the number and denomination of diplomatic counters it uses to the diplomatic counters available to it during the diplomatic phase.

B. TIMING: Diplomatic counters are placed during the diplomatic phase.

C. CONCEALMENT: The placement of diplomatic counters in minor countries is open, but the values of the diplomatic counters placed are kept secret until all diplomatic counters are placed and diplomacy is resolved.

D. ONE COUNTER PER TARGET: Each turn, each major power may place only one diplomatic counter per country.

E. PLACEMENT LIMITS: Each turn each major power may place no more than two diplomatic counters from its set of diplomatic counters, plus the following additional initial placements:

24.55  SEQUENCE:  The following sequence is followed with respect to the placement of diplomatic counters: Germany, Italy, Russia, Britain, France, Italy and Germany:

A. AXIS: Germany and Italy initially may each place one diplomatic counter in an eligible minor country, plus any additional diplomatic counters and diplomatic counters in minor countries containing Axis spy rings or in which a civil war is being fought.

B. RUSSIA: Russia then places all its diplomatic counters.

C. ALLIES: Britain and France then place all their diplomatic counters.

D. AXIS: Germany and Italy may each then place one additional diplomatic counter, provided the placing Axis major power placed at least one diplomatic counter initially.

 

Diplomatic sequence (24.55)

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24.551  SPY RINGS:  Spy rings in minor countries have the following effects in the turns in which they are activated (16.16B):

A. GUARANTEED EFFECTS: Whether or not the spy ring is eliminated by an opposing counter-intelligence result or an enemy spy ring:

B. IF NOT ELIMINATED: If the spy ring is not then eliminated by an opposing counter-intelligence result or an enemy spy ring:

24.552  RANDOM EVENTS:  General diplomatic random events 115-128 posit a diplomatic dispute between two minor countries in which the Axis must support one side and Russia or the Allies the other. Zero value diplomatic counters may not be used to meet the requirement to place a diplomatic counter in one of the disputants:

A. Either Germany or Italy must place a diplomatic counter in one of the minor countries during its initial diplomatic placement.

B. Russia then has the option of placing a diplomatic counter in the other minor country, if it is otherwise permitted to do so (24.61).

C. If Russia does not place a diplomatic counter in the other minor country, then either Britain or France must do so.

D. Russia, Britain and France may not place a diplomatic counter in the minor country supported by the Axis.

E. Similarly, neither Axis major power may later place a diplomatic counter in the minor country supported by Russia or the Allies.

F. The placement of diplomatic counters required by these random events counts towards the limits on diplomatic counter placement (24.54E).

24.56  RESTRICTIONS:

A. TARGET MUST BE UNCONQUERED: Diplomatic counters may not be placed in a minor country which has been the target of a successful aggression.

B. ANTI-COMINTERN COUNTER: Axis and Allied diplomatic counters may not be placed in a minor country containing the anti-Comintern counter.

C. AXIS AND ALLIED DUPLICATION PROHIBITED: Germany and Italy may not place diplomatic counters in the same minor country in the same turn. Similarly, Britain and France may not place diplomatic counters in the same minor country in the same turn. Diplomatic counters may be placed in minor countries for which a random event has been drawn or in which a hostile major power has placed a diplomatic counter.

D. ALLIES AND RUSSIA: The Allies may not place a diplomatic counter in a diplomatic target containing one or more Russian flags, or for which a general or secret Russian diplomatic random event has been drawn in that turn (EXCEPTION: The Allies may support their faction in a civil war even if there are Russian flags present). The converse does not apply; Russia may place diplomatic counters in diplomatic targets containing Allied flags or for which there is an Allied random event.

E. PLACEMENT IN RUSSIA PROHIBITED: Diplomatic counters may not be placed in Russia except as permitted by a random event. Otherwise flags may be placed in or removed from Russia as set out in 10.91F.

Nazi-Soviet Pact

F. NAZI-SOVIET PACT: The Nazi-Soviet Pact has no effect on diplomacy between the Axis and Russia, other than that the anti-Comintern counter may no longer be used by Germany.

G. USE OF ZERO VALUE DIPLOMATIC COUNTERS: Diplomatic counters with a value of zero may be used to mislead or bluff the opponent, provided the placing major power has the option of placing a higher value diplomatic counter in the target. Zero value diplomatic counters may not be placed if this condition is not met, including by:

This rule shouldn’t be necessary, but it turned out to be, as some playtesters couldn’t resist playing games by placing diplomatic counters to see if the opponent could figure out that the placement was meaningless. Life is too short for such things.

 

24.6  RUSSIAN DIPLOMACY:

24.61  RESTRICTIONS:

A. RUSSIAN PURGE EFFECTS: If Russia is subject to a Great Purge, or the Party Purge event and elects to forego diplomatic counter placement (22.21B), Russian diplomacy is prohibited.

B. BEFORE FULL COHESION: Until Russia reaches full cohesion, it may only place diplomatic counters in:

C. FULL COHESION: Once Russia has reached full cohesion, it may, in addition to the above, also place diplomatic counters in Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Hungary, Sweden and Yugoslavia.

24.7  MAJOR POWER RELATIONS:

24.71  Germany and Italy (the Axis) are on friendly terms.

24.72  Britain and France (the Allies) are on friendly terms.

24.73  The Axis and the Allies are hostile to one another.

24.74  Russia is hostile to the Axis and Allies prior to the signing of the Nazi-Soviet Pact and hostile to the Allies afterwards.

24.75  FRIENDLY MAJOR POWERS:  Major powers which are friendly combine their diplomatic counters and random events, although two friendly major powers may not both place diplomatic counters in the same target (24.56C).

24.76  HOSTILE MAJOR POWERS:

A. A major power counts its diplomatic counters and random events separately from those of hostile major powers.

B. A major power’s diplomatic counters and random events always count against those of hostile major powers.

24.8  RESOLVING DIPLOMACY: 

24.81  Once all diplomatic counters are placed, diplomacy is resolved as follows for each minor country:

A. The overall diplomatic effort in each minor country for the Axis, the Allies and Russia is determined by the total of the value of the military and diplomatic counters placed in the minor country, the applicable random events for the minor country and any other modifiers.

B. Germany/Italy, Britain/France or Russia achieves a diplomatic result if its total diplomatic effort is higher than that of the other two alliances, calculated separately (alliances never combine to block a third alliance).

C. A diplomatic result shifts the alignment of the diplomatic target one level in favor of the successful major power(s) (24.82).

D. All diplomatic and military counters are retrieved at the end of the diplomatic phase; all random event cards used in diplomacy are returned to the discard pile.

24.82  When a diplomatic result is achieved:

A. The diplomatic alignment of the target is shifted one level, regardless of the extent by which the successful alliance won. Any surplus is lost and cannot be retained for use in a subsequent turn.

B. The shift in the target’s diplomatic alignment is recorded as follows:

It follows from this rule that the French flag that begins the game in Poland, which increases the Russian garrison requirement, cannot be removed by Russia. If the Axis eliminate the French flag, this helps Russia - in the short term.

Nazi-Soviet Pact

C. Where a diplomatic result may affect either Axis or Allied major power:

D. There may never be more than four flags in a diplomatic target.

E. If a diplomatic random event has no effect because the target minor country has been conquered or because the target minor country already has four flags and the random event was not required to preserve the flags, the major power playing the random event receives a support increase equal to the value of the unused diplomatic modifier on the random event (a “1” diplomatic event generates +1 support; a “2” diplomatic event generates +2 support).

24.83  FIGHTING THE COMMUNIST THREAT:  If an Axis diplomatic result eliminates a Russian flag from a minor country:

A. In the following turn, a +1 diplomatic modifier favoring the Axis major power that made the greatest contribution to eliminating the Russian flag applies to the minor country from which the Russian flag was eliminated.

B. A minor country that has been conquered may not be chosen as a target for the diplomatic modifier.

C. The diplomatic modifier is applied after all random events are revealed and before the strength of diplomatic counters is revealed.

D. In determining which Axis major power benefits, diplomatic counter and random event totals are compared; covert events and counter-intelligence against opposing covert events are ignored. In case of a tie, Germany benefits.

24.9  SPECIAL SITUATIONS: 

24.91  CIVIL WARS: Random events in Greece, Spain and Yugoslavia may trigger a civil war (25).