15. RESEARCH

15.1      OVERVIEW

15.2      RESEARCH ALLOCATIONS

15.3      RANDOM EVENTS

15.4      RESEARCH PROJECTS

15.5      STARTING RESULTS

15.6      RESEARCH RESULTS

15.1  OVERVIEW:

15.11  OVERVIEW:  The Axis, Allies and Russia conduct research separately. During the research segment, each alliance may research one or more eligible projects by assigning research points from its basic research point allocation, plus activity counters used for research. Research may also be augmented by random events.

15.12  RESEARCH CATEGORIES: There are five research categories: air, naval, military, atomic and intelligence.

15.13  STEPS AND LEVELS:  Each incremental advance on a research track is referred to as a “step”. The cells in the research record sheets that are marked by “+” numbers or icons indicate the “levels” of research. For every two steps achieved in a research or production project, the project advances by one “level”.

15.14  RESEARCH AND PRODUCTION:  In A World at War, there is an important distinction between research and production projects. In Gathering Storm, both types of projects are referred to as “research projects”, except where clarity requires otherwise (for example, ASW research and the production of ASW units), and the same mechanisms apply to both.

15.15  RESEARCH SECRET:  The placement of research points is concealed until results are revealed.

15.2  RESEARCH ALLOCATIONS:

15.21  BASIC RESEARCH ALLOCATION:  Each turn the basic research point allocation for each alliance is:

A. AXIS: 3 + 1 intelligence point + 1 German advanced research point.

B. ALLIES: 3 + 1 intelligence point.

C. RUSSIA: 1 + 1 intelligence point + 1 Russian advanced research point, unless prohibited by a Russian purge.

15.22  SUPPLEMENTAL RESEARCH POINTS: Subject to 15.22A, each turn each major power may use one activity counter to supplement its basic research allocation. Activity counters used for research may not be used for other purposes in that turn.

A. ADDITIONAL CIVILIAN FACTORIES: A major power that converts an idle factory to civilian use adds a 1 activity counter to its activity counter pool that may be used for research in addition to one other activity counter, and for no other purpose (12.22A):

These benefits are not permanent; if the required civilian factory is later mobilized, the dedicated research counter is removed from that major power’s activity counter pool in the turn in which the mobilization occurs (13.21A).

B. SPY RINGS: A spy ring in an enemy research category permits the placement of one additional research point in any project in that research category at no cost (16.16B).

C. EXPENDITURES REVEALED: Research expenditures are revealed at the end of the Economic phase.

D. CIVIL WAR INTERVENTION: Each time a major power intervenes in a civil war using a military counter, it may place an additional research point in one of the projects listed below during the diplomatic phase of the turn in which the military counter is used, regardless of the stage of the project and even if another research point had been placed in that project during the research segment of that turn:

E. EXCESS PURGE EVENTS: For each purge event Russia incurs in excess of 30 purge events, Russia immediately gains one additional step of research at no cost. These additional research steps may be assigned to any Russian research project, subject to the restriction that no more than three additional research steps from excess purge events may be assigned to a single project (22.46).

15.23  RESTRICTIONS:  Research points may be assigned to any eligible project, subject to the following restrictions and the specific project restrictions set out in 15.42. Each turn:

A. ONE RESEARCH POINT PER PROJECT: No more than one research point may be assigned to each project (EXCEPTIONS: Research points from spy rings (15.22B) and civil war interventions (15.22D).

B. RESEARCH POINTS TO DIFFERENT STAGES OF PROJECTS: For each alliance:

C. ITALIAN AND FRENCH RESEARCH POINTS: Each turn, unless three of their eligible projects have achieved 6-step results:

D. INTELLIGENCE RESEARCH POINTS: The single Axis, Allied and Russian intelligence research point:

E. GERMAN ADVANCED RESEARCH POINT: The single German advanced research point:

F. RUSSIAN ADVANCED RESEARCH POINT: The single Russian advanced research point:

15.24  REASSIGNING RESEARCH POINTS:  Once assigned to a project, research points may only be switched to a different project if a random research event is drawn that would fail to have its full effect because of the earlier assignment of research points to that project. The surplus research points are then reassigned to one or more other projects in the same research category, regardless of the stages of the projects, subject to the following restrictions:

A. The projects to which the research points are reassigned must be eligible projects for the major power to which the random event applied; and

B. No more than three research points may be reassigned to a single project.

15.241  This situation may arise in any of the following ways:

A. A random event that advances a project one step or one or more levels cannot fully apply because that project is completed or nearly completed.

B. A doubling random event cannot fully apply because the project to which it applies is completed or nearly completed.

C. A random event may not fully apply to an intelligence project because of the limit on how many research results for that intelligence project may be held prior to use.

EXAMPLES: The Axis have invested 12 research points in Italian battleship design, achieving the maximum possible research result. Italy draws random event card 16: “Italian naval architects reconcile beauty and durability. Italian battleship design +1 level.” Since this random event can have no effect on Italian battleship design, Italy may reassign two research points (one level) to any naval project(s) eligible to receive Italian research points.

If the Axis had invested only 11 research points in Italian battleship design, the random event would complete Italian battleship design or one Axis research point could be used to complete Italian battleship design so that two research points would be reassigned. Had the Axis invested 10 or fewer research points in Italian battleship design, the random event would take effect normally.

The Allies have invested nine research points in air range. Random general event card 70 is drawn: “Improvements in airplane engine endurance. Double value of previous investment in air range research, up to a maximum increase of three steps.” Two of the previously assigned research points are reassigned, because only one step is required to complete the Allied air range research. If the Allies already had an air range research result, three research points could be assigned to Allied air projects.

15.3  RANDOM EVENTS: 

15.31  GENERAL RANDOM EVENTS:  General research random events take effect at the start of the research segment, before any research points are allocated and before national research random events take effect. General research random events may have the following effects:

A. The research points assigned to jets, air range, battleship design, rockets, economic preparation or radar are doubled, up to a maximum increase of three steps. Doubling effects which cannot be applied to the specified project because they exceed the maximum achievable result allow the reassignment of research points to other projects in the same research category (15.24).

B. Atomic research is allowed.

15.32  NATIONAL RANDOM EVENTS:  National research random events may be played any time during the research segment, as desired by the major power that drew the random event, and are revealed at the end of the Economic phase. National research random events may have the following effects:

A. A project advances one or two levels.

B. Two projects each advance one step.

C. A project may be advanced in the same manner from a spy ring.

D. An additional activity counter may be applied to research.

15.4  RESEARCH PROJECTS:

15.41  The research projects that may be conducted by each major power are indicated on the Research Record Sheets.

15.42  RESTRICTIONS:

A. WEST WALL: The Axis may not place research points in the West Wall until Germany has remilitarized the Rhineland. This does not prevent an early start to West Wall construction as a result of German random event 85 (pre-fabricated bunkers mass produced). German random event 7 (concrete shortage) prohibits the placement of Axis research points in the West Wall in the turn in which it is drawn, even if West Wall research is otherwise permitted.

B. ANGLO-FRENCH COOPERATION: The Allies may not place research points in Anglo-French cooperation until the Axis have carried out an aggression against a target other than Ethiopia or the Rhineland. This does not prevent earlier research advances in Anglo-French cooperation as a result of random events.

C. ATOMIC RESEARCH: Research points may not be placed in atomic general research until one of the two atomic general research random events is drawn (random event cards 72 and 144). This does not prevent earlier research advances in atomic general research as a result of random events.

15.5  STARTING RESULTS:

15.51  STARTING RESULTS: The game begins with the following research results having already occurred:

A. AXIS: One specialized unit research result.

B. ALLIES:

C. RUSSIA: One specialized unit result.

15.52 EFFECT OF STARTING RESEARCH RESULTS: The starting research results affect the Balance of Power Charts and Russian garrison, but are not taken into account for those projects when assigning research points and determining additional research results.

EXAMPLE: The first Allied research point assigned to strategic bombers is placed in step 1 of the strategic bombers project, and after six steps it the Allies get a strategic bomber research result and place a second strategic bomber counter on the air portion of the Balance of Power Chart, in addition to the strategic bomber counter already on the air portion of the Balance of Power Chart at the beginning of the game.

15.6  RESEARCH RESULTS:

15.61  Once all research points are assigned, research and production are recorded on the Axis, Allied or Russian Research Record Sheets.

15.62  RESULTS ON RESEARCH RECORD SHEET:  Research results that affect play in Gathering Storm are indicated on the research record sheet by bold text on the Research Record Sheets.

15.63  Research results are announced when they first affect play.

EXAMPLE: Starting in Spring 1935, France decides to research battleship design.

Using the standard tracking convention, France assigns the maximum one research point (15.23A) in Spring (green), Summer (yellow) and Fall (orange).

In Winter 1935, France draws random event card 22, which has the following research random event for France: “French naval architects and technicians confer on design of next generation of French battleships. French battleship design research +1 level.”

France implements the random event (15.32), completing steps 4 and 5, and then assigns a research point to battleship design in Winter (blue), achieving a battleship design result.

In Winter 1935, the Allies place a French battleship design counter on the naval balance of power track, and France could lay down a four-factor battleship (19.63C, 16.13B).